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24, chemin de Borde Rouge -Auzeville - CS52627 31326 Castanet Tolosan cedex - France

Last update: May 2021

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Platform for experimentation on infectious diseases

L3 facility : sheep and technician
© Inra, PFIE

INRA- Centre de Tours – Nouzilly
UE 1277 PFIE
37 380 Nouzilly - France

Laboratory involved: ResearchUnit "Infectiologie Animale et Santé Publique"(UR IASP, 1282) - Animal Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health

Research topics

>> Molecular characterisation of pathogens

Understanding the genetic diversity of specific pathogens and their potential to evolve is required in order to assess the risk associated with those pathogens. Molecular analyses carried out to this purpose are facilitated by the availability of the complete genome sequence of a number of reference organisms.

  • Work carried out in IASP focuses on the identification and functional characterization of genes associated with virulence and pathogenicity, as well as genes supporting drug resistance. Molecular basis for genetic plasticity of pathogenic bacteria and their resistance to antibiotics, including the study of genomic islands carrying relevant genes (Salmonella,Escherichia coli,Brucella spp)
  • Methods for characterising food-borne pathogens, in view of identifying specific pathogenic profiles (prions) or specific markers for bacterial species or strains (Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis,Brucella,E. coli,Listeria)
  • Population genetics, which describes quantitatively and qualitatively the genetic variation within natural populations, especially in ruminant-infective helminths;

>> Analysis of pathogenic mechanisms and drug resistance mechanisms

Both virulence and drug resistance are determined by effector mechanisms which allow the pathogens to recognize, colonize and induce pathology in the host, as well as escape the host defence, whether natural (immune response) or artificial (antibiotics).

Work carried out in IASP includes :

  • identification, organisation and regulation of genes involved in virulence, pathogenicity and persistence in the host (carrier state), as well as those supporting resistance to antibiotics.
  • understanding biological mechanisms underlying virulence and pathogenicity:
    • in vitro, using cell cultures : specific recognition of host cells, « fitness », invasion, resistance to phagocytosis, carcinogenesis
    • in vivo, using animal experimental models :Prions,Salmonella,E.coli,Listeria,EEL
  • Understanding biological mechanisms of drug resistance : study of drug efflux

>> Modulation of the host immune response

The goal of a number of research projects developed in IASP is to improve the level of protection of the host against infectious diseases through triggering protective specific immune responses (vaccination) or by exploiting and stimulating innate mechanisms of protection (use of immuno-stimulants ; selection of resistant strains of animals). Our research objectives are to elucidate the immune mechanisms that take place within mucosal epithelia, particularly of the gastro-intestinal tract. The major biological questions addressed in the unit relate to immuno-modulation by pathogens, the functions of dendritic cells in ruminants, pigs and chicken, the recruitment and migration of immune cells to the target organs.

Immunological studies and teams within IASP are organized according to the target species:

  • Pigs : role of passive and active immunity at the mucosal level in the protection of young pigs from birth to weaning – use of histocompatible minipigs.
  • Ruminants:
    • Molecular and genetic factors controlling inflammation in the mammary gland
    • Intestinal immunity in neonates (role of dendritic cells and NK cells); strategies of immuno-modulation
  • Chicken : mechanisms of innate immunity in respiratory and digestive mucosae

Access contact person

Pierre Sarradin
Director - Unité Expérimentale PFIE
37380 Nouzilly

Tel :33 2 47 42 79 32
Cell 33 6 33 97 81 77
Fax :33 2 47 42 73 51

e-mail :

Activities and services

TheTours Animal Health Pole - PSATis dedicated to multidisciplinary investigations on infectious diseases in livestock and implications for public health. The Platform for experimentation on infectious diseases (PFIE, “Plate-forme d'Infectiologie Expérimentale”), together with the Animal Infectious Diseases and Veterinary Public Health IASP Research Unit constitute the Pole for Animal Health. It is devoted to research in animal biology and health and offers shared facilities for surgery, medical imaging, as well as molecular and cellular analyses. The Animal Health Pole in Tours is the largest multidisciplinary research organisation on animal infectious diseases in France.

The Platform PFIE is open to all researchers, either form the Academic or private background, working on farm animal pathogens or zoonotic agents, as well as on animal models for human diseases, with a high focus on emerging diseases and the fight against pathogen spreading.

Research can be carried out on medicine animal such as rodent and rabbit and/or all types of domestic animal from chiken and various fowl to pig and cattle, and can accommodate some wild fauna such as boar.

The PFIE provides experimental suites housing animals in biosafety containment from A1 to A3 and take care of all the logistics linked to pathogens handling, or even practice some field experiments for “low pathogens” affecting ruminants, such as some common parasites. Due to the large number of experimental suites , we can handle a broad range of studies, including studies with large numbers of animals (up to roughly 100 - 150 small ruminants, as well 24 cow simultaneously in A3 for example) and long term studies (months up to several years if needed) which can include reproductive or milking endpoints. We breed and can propose animals with particular health status such as SPF mice, rabbits and poultry, transgenic mice, and health controlled pigs and small ruminants. We can accommodate some specific flocks with a naïve sanitary status to some disease which normally require a systematic vaccination.

Sheep in L3 facilyty

Inra, PFIE

INRA involvement range from simple housing and caretaking, administration of products through various routes, and performing the requested samplings, to a more sophisticated contribution such a setting up a dedicated animal model, use of medical imaging or surgery, as we have on our own in a A3 containment a scintigraphy and X-Ray facility, and access to a surgical plateau through the Tours Centre.

Platforms users bring in their own research topics, however of course, after a long relationship with IASP, the Platform is especially proficient in the thematic related to IASP research topics.

The PFIE has a staff of around 53 permanent agents, among them 3 veterinarians and 2 Ph.D, 1 Quality engineer, and 30 animal caretakers. A dedicated group is involved in new experimental settings and innovation. We also gain additional resources from our Tours Research environment in terms of facility maintenance and security handling.

The PFIE is ISO 9001/ 2000 certified and all studies will be performed according to this standard.

Description of the access to provide

>> Available animals :


The PFI experimental infectiology platform is an integral part of the Animal Infectiology Experimentation Institute (IEIA) of the Animal Health Division of INRA, and it provides the scientific community with forty lines of consanguineous, congenic and transgenic mice mainly dedicated to Prion or immunological research, with either SPF or conventional sanitary status

Poultry (hens)

  • About ten lines of SPF poultry, including the following histocompatible and congenic lines:
    • white Leghorn standard (PA12), histocompatible and/or congenic (B13/B13, B21/B21, B4/B4, B12/B12, B13/B12, B21/B12, B4/B12),
    • Golden Leghorn: two sub-lines (LD1, LD2) selected for their endogenous structures, for studying viro-induced tumors (Marek disease, Rous’ sarcoma) etc.;
  • About ten lines not bred on site (Inra, Le Magneraud): B19 h1, h2, h3p, rev0, B212h, B214, B14, B12 (a flock of 250 breeders);
  • SPF eggs;
  • Germ-free/ axemic chicks.

Farm animals (ruminants, pigs)

Stokers or their specific products of controlled sanitary and/or genetic status from the following breeding herds:

  • Dairy cows with controlled mastitis status
  • 450 ewes including consanguineous animals (5 families, average consanguinity level 0.65);
  • 20 histocompatible sows, d/d line.

These are closed herds (no animals from outside enter the herds).

The experimental infectiology platform also acquires animals from different suppliers when necessary:

  • other species: goats, rats, ducks, etc.
  • other breeds: cattle, sheep, pigs, etc.
  • other lines: mice, poultry, etc.

>> Techniques and tools

The platform has the largest single experimental capacity in confinement for farm animals in France. The annual experimentation capacity varies greatly according to the duration of protocols, the animal species involved and the protection level required. It is therefore difficult to estimate the exact capacity, but to give an idea the following protocols are carried out regularly:

  • protocols involving around a hundred pigs or sheep maintained simultaneously in A3 confinement, including gestating females or mothers and offspring;
  • protocols involving the infection of sheep (around fifty) with a BSE agent (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy); these animals are kept under experimentation for several years;
  • protocols involving several hundred poultry;
  • protocols on mice ranging from a few days (e.g. listeriosis) to more than 800 days (prion disease);
  • protocols on neonatal mice;
  • protocols on “clean-delivery” neonatal lambs (lambs collected directly from the mothers genital tract/lambs taken immediately after delivery);
  • protocols on lactating cows, goats and sheep in A3 confinement;

A special emphasis should be made on our A3- contained medical imaging system:

This specific localisation enables functional imaging to be carried out on naturally or experimentally infected animals.

This facility allows to follow the infection process, bio-distribution and homing of labelled pathogenic agents, grafted and transplanted cells, or biological or pharmaceutical products to be monitored over time in the same individual in a non-invasive manner.

Our csuite is equipped with a gamma camera enabling imaging of small to middle sized animals: hens, rabbits pigs, goats and sheep, as well as experimental animals: mice and rats. It includes

  • a laboratory for the manipulation of radioactive products;
  • several animal cells (housing the infected animals);
  • a specific room for the imaging system.

This specific location enables imaging to be carried out on naturally or experimentally infected animals. This laboratory thus controls the biological and radioactive risks simultaneously.

Direct labeling of infectious agents has provided knowledge about the infectious process and clearance of pathogens, particularly bacteria such as S. Abortusovis (sheep), S. Enteritidis (chicken) and Listeria monocytogenes (sheep). Recently, dissemination of the prion protein (PrP) linked with clay (Montmorillonite) has been monitored in the mouse brain.

The localization of foci of inflammation caused by multiplication of infectious agents is made possible by revealing the inflammatory immune response (leucocytes, IL8, chemokines, etc) or by directly targeting the pathogen with specific molecules (antibodies, antibiotics, etc.).

Inra, PFIE

Visualising the distribution dynamics of different cells or radiolabelled compounds enabled the study of domiciliation of pig lymphocytes, the bio-distribution of pharmaceutical products in the rat, and hormones (pLH, eCG) in the rat and mouse.

The purchase planned for 2010 of a 3D tomographic camera linked to an X-Ray scanner will enable us to investigate other topics requiring a spatial approach such as cerebral imaging and a more precise localisation of the radioactive distribution observed.

This access to a A3 contained medical imaging system can also be completed by the availability of a full surgery and imaging plateau of conventional status, also located in the Tours Research Center.

>> Facilities and Equipment

A3 confinement facilities

There are around 30 experimental cells achieving an A3 confinement level, allowing animal spaces from 2-4 m2 cages to 300 square meters areas depending of the considered isolated cell, for a total of over 4,000 m2 excluding the rodent A3 experimental facility (4 housing/experimenting cells for 140 sqm). They are divided between several buildings, including INPREST, and are independent, of different sizes and capacities according to the species housed (up to 80 sheep, up to 12 cows for single cells) and can be modified for different animals.

Flow of staff, animals, filtered air, material and waste (solid and liquid) are strictly controlled. Waste is managed according to infection risk: heat treatment using an autoclave (at different temperatures) and/or chemical treatment, and final incineration as stipulated in the regulations.

Focus on INPREST, A technically innovative building entered into operation in 2009

Initially set up for research on transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, this A3 level confinement building is now dedicated to research on all pathogens requiring this level of confinement, and particularly on emerging diseases. This 4,120 m2 building, including 800 m2 for pure housing of animals, is suitable for sheep, cattle, goats, pigs and poultry. The building is of an advanced technological level and is equipped with various prototypes. In the near future improvements will include a centralised decontamination system using hydrogen peroxide and a carcass decontamination system using an alkaline lysis digestor.

Inra, PFIE

Isolators and containment units

Around forty isolator units of different capacities (3 sizes) are available for experimenting on birds, rabbits and rodents. Some are used to produce axenic/ germ-free chicks. New “climate controlled” A3 isolators, developed by the PFIE maintenance department and the manufacturer, are currently being validated: their specific features include the possibility of regulating temperature between 15 and 35°C and relative humidity between 20 and 80%. New isolation units are equipped with a DPTE system (airtight double transfer door), like certain microbiological security stations, to ensure transfer to Security hoods without a break in confinement.

Inra, PFIE

Level A2 confinement facilities

Around eighty independent A2 confinement units of different sizes and variable capacities (rooms, floor, cages, …) according to the animal species are available to allow experiments to be carried out on research and farm animals on grating, litter, etc or in batteries for a total around 4 000 m²

Level A1 confinement facilities

The experimentations in level A1 confinement are carried out under normal farming conditions with specific physical barriers for species reared in traditional environments such as sheep pens, stall housing and experimental grassland. We offer around 50 cells for a total of 5,200 m2.

Protected units

We develop some protected areas in order to raise SPF poultry and rodents – for 1.300 and 500m2 respectively, the chicken house being to be replaced by a new one early 2010.

We additionally dedicate some building in high pressurization to house animals protected from outside agents or vectors. This enables us to maintain unvaccinated flocks of sheep, in order to keep naive animals available for infectious research. Currently, we house a FCO- naïve herd.

Laboratory and housing – for humans

The platform PFIE and the research group would be glad to accommodate the sojourn of any researcher wanting to stay in Tours for some time around a animal study. The Tours research centre can offer some basic lodging for short periods, and for laboratory work the PFIE and IASP can made a small bench space and standard materials available in either conventional or L3 setting for early treatment of samples.

Conditions will depend of materials and time requested.

Type of support that will be ensured,

Basic services provided include providing and possibly pre-screening animals, housing and care, administration of compounds or infectious agents, sampling and sending of samples, study termination for the in vivo and housing part.

Upon agreement, we could try to develop or implement dedicated animal models, which could include medical imaging and surgery.

The platform will gladly seek to fill more advanced services: early sample processing of analysis depending of the type of analysis requested and availability of materials. If researchers form the IASP unit can be partner of the study, the whole panel of classical research technique – molecular and in vitro – could be made available.

As mentioned above, depending of the type of study proposed, PFIE would handle most of the work on its own, but we would gladly welcome scientist wanting to take some part of the experiment in vivo on site or wanting to perform extemporaneous analysis in our facilities. We could then offer some bench space and materials, as well as facilitate some lodging.

Time unit

Unit of access: 1 month (Estimated number of access: 8)

The platform may need some time to accommodate a study. Usually, from a first contact, at least a month should be expected before the initiation of a “basic study”. Some of our rare cells are already booked for months, and new request would be placed on a waiting list if no other solution can be made available.

We can accommodate studies that include very long term endpoints. Our current longest studies include 4 years in small ruminants of 1 year for cows in A3 containments units, including calving / birth and lactation.

Number of participants accepted:

This will depend on the workload. To be checked with the facility director during the first contact

Travel and subsistence costs

Reimbursement of travel, accommodation, subsistence costs will be done according to the INRA accountancy rules.

Conditions of participant involvement

After the end of each project the candidate will:

  • Submit a short report
  • Fill a questionnaire available on-line at:
  • The participant is entitled to publish the results of its work at the infrastructure in the open literature.All publications resulting from the project should acknowledge this EC-support by mentioning : “The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community‘s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 228394”
  • Proprietary research (research where results are not generally available to the public or only made available under confidentiality arrangements) cannot be supported.
  • Travel and subsistence expenses linked to the access will be reimbursed upon approval of the report. Reimbursements will be done according to administrative rules of each hosting organisation.
  • For more information about transnational access conditions, see the ANNEX III to the Grant Agreement - Infrastructures

In addition:Scientific soundness as well a strong implication for human or animal health is a key element for studies performed at the PSAT, and we target high quality journals for submission of papers. Perspective of health improvements, such as the development of candidate drugs or vaccines would raise a lot of interest.

The PSAT intends to publish or make available to the community the results of the studies performed under the NADIR agreement. Depending of the input of the PFIE, our structure could be either in the authors or simply thanked for the in acknowledgements of the papers or reports.

All proposed studies should comply to ethic and regulatory requirements. The PFIE would refuse to perform studies outside

Any researcher wanting to take part in the in vivo part or to perform some studies on site will be welcome, but nevertheless will have to demonstrate his/ her abilities to perform the desired acts, in a biological safety environment. Demonstration of training and certifications by ethic or medical committees will be appreciated, but the PFIE keeps all right to examine such accreditation and have them validated by our regulatory agencies on a case by case basis, and to request additional training in accordance to our own practices. We expect any visitor to comply with our internal rules.

Infrastructure ethical rules

Researches performed at the PFIE and at the PSAT are performed within strict respect of the animal welfare and care. Our facilities are certified for animal handling, raising, and performing in vivo experiments, our personnel is trained, qualified and registered at the regulatory agencies. We work in close collaboration with the local institutions and veterinary services, in order to keep a high animal ethic standard.

We expect any external partner coming on site and wanting some studies performed in our facilities to comply with our rules and process.

This includes also

  • Submitting the proposed studies to the approbation of our side ethic committee or having our committee acknowledging the analysis performed by the requestor’s committee.
  • French Level-1 animal experimentation authorization for people directing studies, and level-2 authorization for all animal technicians or their foreign equivalents
  • Environment-friendly procedures: protection of people, pathogen containment adapted to the level of risk, thermal and/or chemical decontamination of infectious waste, etc.
  • The experiment may require the agreement of the Scientific Committee for Utilization (CSU), the Animal Health Department, and the opinion of the Ethics Committee or the French Genetic Engineering Commission (CGG).
  • Quality certification complying with the ISO 9001:2000 standard
  • Respect for the confidentiality of the experiments and discretion concerning other studies seen on site
  • Respect of human ethics and behaviour regarding the colleagues and agents on site.

The PSAT makes available a survey of regulations on the VERSA site

Recent publications

Herebelow is a list of the 2009 publications which involved the PFIE as a support facility. PFIE is rarely mentioned as such in the authors, due to its support role.

  • Ahanda M.L., Ruby T., Wittzell H., Bed'hom B., Chausse A.M., Morin V., Oudin A., Chevalier C., Young J.R., Zoorob R. Non-coding RNAs revealed during identification of genes involved in chicken immune responses. Immunogenetics, 2009; 61: 55-70.
  • Barrio M.B., Grillo M.J., Munoz P.M., Jacques I., Gonzalez D., de Miguel M.J., Marin C.M., Barberan M., Letesson J.J., Gorvel J.P., Moriyon I., Blasco J.M., Zygmunt M.S. Rough mutants defective in core and O-polysaccharide synthesis and export induce antibodies reacting in an indirect ELISA with smooth lipopolysaccharide and are less effective than Rev 1 vaccine against Brucella melitensis infection of sheep. Vaccine, 2009; 27: 1741-1749.
  • Beaumont C., Chapuis H., Protais J., Sellier N., Menanteau P., Fravalo P., Velge P. Resistance to Salmonella carrier state: selection may be efficient but response depends on animal's age. Genetics Research, 2009; 91; 161-169.
  • Bellon S., Prache S., Benoit M., Cabaret J. Recherches en élevage biologique : enjeux, acquis et développements. Productions Animales, 2009; 22: 271-284.
  • Berrag B., Ouzir M., Cabaret J. A survey on meat sheep farms in two regions of morocco on farm structure and the acceptability of the targeted selective treatment approach to worm control. Veterinary Parasitology ; 2009 ; 164: 30-35.
  • Cabaret J., Benoit M., Laignel G., Nicourt C. Current management of farms and internal parasites by conventional and organic meat sheep French farmers and acceptance of targeted selective treatments. Veterinary Parasitology, 2009; 164: 21-29.
  • Cabaret J., Charvet C., Fauvin A., Silvestre A., Cortet J., Neveu C. Strongles du tractus digestif des ruminants : mécanismes de résistance aux anthelminthiques et conséquences sur leur gestion. Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France, 2009; 162: 33-38.
  • Calenge F., Lecerf F., Demars J., Feve K., Vignoles F., Pitel F., Vignal A., Velge P., Sellier N., Beaumont C. QTL for resistance to Salmonella carrier state confirmed in both experimental and commercial chicken lines. Animal Genetics, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Cabaret J., Nicourt C. Les problèmes sanitaires en élevage biologique : réalités, conceptions et pratiques. Productions Animales, 2009; 22: 235-243.
  • Chbab N., Chabanne-Vautherot D., Francineau A., Osterrieder O., Denesvre C., Vautherot J.F. The Marek's disease virus (MDV) protein encoded by the UL17 ortholog is essential for virus growth. Veterinary Research, 2009; 40: 28.
  • Chandenier J., Bernard S., Montharu J., Bailly E., Fetissof F., de Monte M., Desoubeaux G., Diot P., Richard-Lenoble D. The utility of a nebulised intra-tracheal rat model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Mycoses, 2009; 52: 239-245.
  • Dal Pozzo F., De Clercq K., Gulyot H., Vandemeulebroucke E., Sarradin P., Vandenbussche F., Thiry E., Saegerman C. Experimental reproduction of bluetongue virus serotype 8 clinical disease in calves. Veterinary Microbiology, 2009; 136: 352-358.
  • Demeler J., Van Zeveren A.M., Kleinschmidt N., Vercruysse J., Hoglund J., Koopmann R., Cabaret J., Claerebout E., Areskog M., von Samson-Himmelstjerna G. Monitoring the efficacy of ivermectin and albendazole against gastro intestinal nematodes of cattle in Northern Europe. Veterinary Parasitology, 2009; 160: 109-115.
  • Denesvre C., Blondeau C. L’herpesvirus aviaire de la maladie de Marek : décalage entre infectivité et particules virales physiques observées en microscopie électronique. Cas Image. Virologie, 2008; [soumis]
  • Derache C., Esnault E., Bonsergent C., Le Vern Y., Quéré P., Lalmanach A.C. Diferential modulation of beta-defensin gene expression by Salmonella Enteritidis in intestinal epithelial cells from resistant and susceptible chicken inbred lines. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 2009; 33: 959-966.
  • Derache C., Labas V., Aucagne V., Meudal H., Landon C., Delmas A.F., Magallon T., Lalmanach A.C. Primary Structure and Antibacterial Activity Characterization of Chicken Bone-marrow Derived {beta}-defensins. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 2009; 53: 4647-4655.
  • Elhmouzi-Younes J., Storset A.K., Boysen P., Laurent F., Drouet F. Bovine neonate Natural Killer cells are fully functional and highly responsive to interleukin-15 and to NKp46 receptor stimulation. Veterinary Research, 2009; 40: 54.
  • Espinosa J.C., Herva M.E., Andreoletti O., Padilla D., Lacroux C., Cassard H., Lantier I., Castilla J., Torres J.M. Transgenic mice expressing porcine prion protein resistant to classical scrapie but susceptible to sheep bovine spongiform encephalopathy and atypical scrapie. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2009; 15: 1214-1221.
  • Frangoulidis D., Rodolakis A., Heiser V., Landt O., Splettstoesser W., Meyer H. DNA microarray-chip based diagnosis of Q-fever (Coxiella burnetii). Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Guiton R, Zagani R, Dimier-Poisson I. Major role for CD8 T cells in the protection against Toxoplasma gondii following dendritic cell vaccination. Parasite Immunology. 2009; 31(10):631-40.
  • Hoste H., Cabaret J., Grosmond G., Guitard J.P. Alternatives aux traitements anthelminthiques en élevage biologique des ruminant. Productions Animales, 2009; 22: 245-254.
  • Kenyon F., Greer A.W., Coles G.C., Cringoli G., Papadopoulos E., Cabaret J., Berrag B., Varady M., Van Wyk J.A., Thomas E., Vercruysse J., Jackson F. The role of targeted selective treatments in the development of refugia-based approaches to the control of gastrointestinal nematodes of small ruminants. Veterinary Parasitology, 2009 ; 164: 3-11.
  • Kerouaton A., Roche S.M., Marault M., Velge P., Pourcher A.M., Brisabois A., Federighi M., Garrec N. Characterization of isolates of Listeria monocytogenes from sludge using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and virulence assay. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 2009; [Epub ahead of print].
  • Khoufache K., LeBouder F., Morello E., Laurent F., Riffault S., Andrade-Gordon P., Boullier S., Rousset P., Vergnolle N., Riteau B. Protective role for protease-activated receptor-2 against influenza virus pathogenesis via an IFN-gamma-dependent pathway. Journal of Immunology, 2009; 182: 7795-7802.
  • Laroucau K., Vorimore F., Bertin C., Yousef Mohamad K., Thierry S., Hermann W., Maingourd C., Pourcel C., Longbottom D., Magnino S., Sachse K., Vretou E., Rodolakis A. Genotyping of Chlamydophila abortus strains by multilocus VNTR analysis. Veterinary Microbiology, 2009; 137: 335-344.
  • Levast B., De Monte M., Melo S., Chevaleyre C., Berri M., Salmon H., Meurens F. Differences in transcriptomic profile and IgA repertoire between jejunal and ileal Peyer's patches. Developmental and Comparative Immunology, 2009. [Epub ahead of print].
  • Licois D. Comments on the article of Ming-Hsien Li and Hong-Kean Ooi "Fecal occult blood manifestation of intestinal Eimeria spp. infection in rabbit" [Vet. Parasitol. 161 (2009) 327-329]. Veterinary Parasitology, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Meurens F., Berri M., Auray G., Melo S., Levast B., Virlogeux-Payant I., Chevaleyre C., Gerdts V., Salmon H. Early immune response following Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in porcine jejunal gut loops. Veterinary Research, 2009; 40: 5.
  • Meurens F., Girard-Misguich F., Melo S., Grave A., Salmon H., Guillen N. Broad precocious immune response of epithelial jejunal IPI-2I cells to Entamoeba histolytica. Molecular Immunology, 2009; 46: 927-936.
  • Munier S., Larcher T., Cormier-Aline F., Soubieux D., Su B., Guigand L., Labrosse B., Cherel Y., Quere P., Marc D., Naffakh N. Increased virulence for chickens of a genetically engineered waterfowl influenza virus with a deletion in the stalk of the neuraminidase. Journal of Virology, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Munoz I., Berges M., Bonsergent C., Cormier F., Quéré P., Sibille P. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of chicken CCR6 and its ligand CCL20. Molecular Immunology, 2009; [Epub ahead of print]
  • Muylkens B., Farnir F., Meurens F., Schynts F., Vanderplasschen A., Georges M., Thiry E. Co-infection with two closely related alphaherpesviruses results in a highly diversified recombination mosaic displaying negative genetic interference. Journal of Virolology, 2009; 83: 3127-3137.
  • Naciri M., Brossier F. Les coccidioses aviaires : importance et perspectives de recherche. [Avian coccidiosis: importance and research prospects]. Bulletin de l'Académie Vétérinaire de France, 2009; 162: 47-50.
  • Niepceron A., Licois D. Development of a high-sensitivity nested PCR assay for the detection of Clostridium piliforme in clinical samples. Vet J, 2009. [Epub ahead of print]
  • Palcy C., Silvestre A., Sauve C., Cortet J., Cabaret J. Benzimidazole resistance in Trichostrongylus axei in sheep: Long-term monitoring of affected sheep and genotypic evaluation of the parasite. Veterinary Journal, 2009; [Epub ahead of print].
  • Roche S.M., Grépinet O., Corde Y., Teixeira A.P., Kerouanton A., Témoin S., Mereghetti L., Brisabois A., Velge P. Listeria monocytogenes strain is still virulent despite non functional major virulence genes? Journa of Infectious Diseases, 2009; [accepté]
  • Rodolakis A. Q Fever in dairy animals. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 2009; 1166: 90-93.
  • Rodolakis A., Clement P., Cochonneau D., Beaudeau F., Sarradin P., Guatteo R. Investigation of humoral and cellular immunity of dairy cattle after one or two year of vaccination with a phase I Coxiella vaccine. Procedia in Vaccinology, 2009; [accepté].
  • Rodolakis A., Yousef Mohamad K. Zoonotic potential of Chlamydophila. Veterinary Microbiology, 2009; [Epub ahead of print].
  • Rousset E., Berri M., Durand B., Dufour P., Prigent M., Delcroix T., Touratier A., Rodolakis A. Coxiella burnetii shedding routes and antibody response after outbreaks of Q fever-induced abortion in dairy goat herds. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2009; 75: 428-433.
  • Salmon H., Berri M., Gerdts V., Meurens F. Humoral and cellular factors of maternal immunity in swine. Development and Comparative Immunology, 2009; 33: 384-393.
  • Saunders G.C., Lantier I., Cawthraw S., Berthon P., Moore S.J., Arnold M., Windl O., Simmons M.M., Andreoletti O., Bellworthy S., Lantier F. Protective effect of the T112 PrP variant in sheep challenged with BSE. Journal of General Virology, 2009; 90: 2569-2574.
  • Schouler C., Taki A., Chouikha I., Moulin-Schouleur M., Gilot P. A genomic island of an extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli Strain enables the metabolism of fructooligosaccharides, which improves intestinal colonization. Journal of Bacteriology, 2009; 191: 388-393.
  • Zanello G., Meurens F., Berri M., Salmon H. Saccharomyces boulardii effects on gastrointestinal diseases. Current Issues in Molecular Biology, 2009; 11: 47-58.